- 1 Citations of the work will refer to both the edition and the translation in the following manner: (...)
1In his book Kitâb maʿrifat anwâʿʿilm al-ḥadîth (The Book on the Knowledge about the Different Types ofḤadîth Science) the famous thirteen-century scholar Taqî ad-Dîn Abû ʿAmr ʿUthmân b. ʿAbd ar-Raḥmân Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ ash-Shahrazûrî (d. 643/1245) determines the basic principles for the transmission of ḥadîth. This book, which is also known under the title Muqaddimat Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ (The Introduction of Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ), was edited by Ṣalâḥ b. Muḥammad b. ʿUwaiḍa (Beirut 2006, first edition Lucknow 1304/1886-7) and translated into English by Eerik Dickinson (Reading 2006).1
- 2 For further information on Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ see Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006b: XIV-XXIII. For the underlying Ara (...)
2Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ began teaching at the Asadîya madrasa in Aleppo and continued at the Ṣalâḥîya madrasa in Jerusalem, founded by Ṣalâḥ ad-Dîn in 588/1192, before he took up the professorial chair first at theRawâḥîya madrasa and later at theShaʾmîya Juwânîya madrasa in Damascus. Furthermore, he was appointed to a chair of the newly founded Dâr al-Ḥadîth by al-Malik al-Ashraf. Obtaining this position marked, according to Dickinson, the peak of his career (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006b: XXIII).2 Already at his time he was recognized as one of the most eminent scholars and his work on the sciences of ḥadîth can be considered according to James Robson “the standard work in the sciences of tradition” (Robson, 1971: 927).
- 3 In the following I will use adab al-muḥaddith as a general term. It comprises rules and regulations (...)
- 4 Dickinson translated these chapter headings quite loosely as “Guidelines for the Transmitter of Ḥa (...)
3In his Muqaddima Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ introduces the basic ḥadîth-terminology (sound, fair and weak aḥâdîth, raised ḥadîth, forged ḥadîth etc.), discusses fundamental methods of ḥadîth-criticism, speaks about the methods of transmitting ḥadîth and describes thoroughly the various groups of ḥadîth-transmitters (ṣaḥâba, tâbiʿûn, and such peculiar groups as fathers who transmitted from their sons). In addition, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ also included two chapters on adab al-muḥaddith, i.e. the rules and regulations according to which ḥadîth should be taught, and on pedagogical advice for teachers and students of ḥadîth.3 These two chapters entitled an-nauʿ as-sâbiʿ wa-ʼl-ʿishrûn maʿrifat âdâb al-muḥaddith (Category 27: Knowledge of the Proper Behavior of the Transmitter of ḥadîth) and an-nauʿ ath-thâmin wa-ʼl-ʿishrûn maʿrifat âdâb ṭâlib al-ḥadîth (Category 28: Knowledge of the Proper Behavior of the Student of ḥadîth)4 appear quite surprisingly in the middle of Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ’s discussion of the various types of ḥadîth (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 251-270/167-182) and have not yet been analyzed thoroughly.
- 5 On as-Samʿânî see Sellheim, 1995.
- 6 For a proper understanding (and hence for a good translation) of the term mustamlî see the discuss (...)
- 7 Faṣl fî âdâb al-mumlî, Faṣl fî ‘ittikhâdh al-mustamlî wa-adabihî, Faṣl fî âdâb al-kâtib. (...)
4These two chapters constitute an example of the adab genre within Islamic literature that can be termed adab al-muḥaddith literature and that probably had precursors in other adab-works. This paper is going to argue that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ took most of his information found in the two chapters from his predecessor Abû Saʿd ʿAbd al-Karîm b. Muḥammad as-Samʿânî’ (d. 562/1166).5 As-Samʿânî wrote a book entitled Adab al-imlâʾ wa-ʼl-istimlâʾ (The Proper Behavior in Dictating and in Writing Down through Dictation). This book, which was written in 541/1146-7 and edited by Max Weisweiler in 1952, consists mainly of three chapters dealing with the proper behavior of the person that dictates (mumlî), of the “teaching assistant” (mustamlî)6 and of the person that writes down ḥadîth (kâtib).7
5Before turning to the comparison of the two chapters on adab al-muḥaddith included in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ’s Muqaddima and the respective pages in as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ wa-ʼl-istimlâʾ, a number of terms needs to be clarified.
6ʿUlûm al-ḥadîth (the sciences of ḥadîth) designates various disciplines which enable the student of ḥadîth to comprehend and assess various aḥâdîth and fundamentalḥadîth-compilations (Dickinson, 2000: 933). Information about the transmitter’s proper behavior and on regulations of teaching and learning (adab al-muḥaddith) form a part of these sciences.
- 8 Sessions of dictation are usually rendered as “Diktatkolleg” in German.
- 9 Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ explicitly states that it is the most elevated form in the eyes of the masses (wa-hâd (...)
- 10 Arabic wording: wa-aṣaḥḥ hâdhihî ʼl-anwâʿ an yumliya ʿalaika wa-taktubahû min lafẓ. Some lines fur (...)
- 11 For the introduction, in which as-Samʿânî states that he was asked by a friend to write a book abo (...)
7Majlis (lit. the place of seating, session) refers to sessions of teaching in which ḥadith are transmitted. There are several methods of conveying ḥadîth. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ describes eight different variants in detail (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 177-213/95-127) beginning with “the audition of the teacherʼs articulation (as-samâʿ min lafẓ ash-shaikh)” which can take the form of dictation (imlâʾ) (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 181, l. 3/97).8 This method is regarded as the supreme form of transmitting ḥadîth.9 It is clear that already as-Samʿânî held this view, when he says at the beginning of his Adab al-imlâʾ: “The best of these types [of transmission] is, that he [= the muḥaddith] dictates to you while you write down his articulation” (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 8, l. 10-11).10 In addition, as-Samʿânî continues to quote several traditions in favor of dictation (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 11, l. 1–23, l. 20). Both scholars therefore set priorities on the transmission of ḥadîth through dictation. We will find an affirmation of this attitude in their terminology (see below). Dictation as prime method of transmission depends on the availability of written documents or books. In the lifetime of both scholars we can safely assume that finalized books were generally used in ḥadîth-lectures (Schoeler, 2009: 124). That the Muqaddima was a book conclusively edited by its author is indicated by its introduction (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 258, l. 4-5/1-4) and by several cross references, also to be found in the two chapters under discussion (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 7, l. 1 – 16, l. 12/171 or 262, l. 16-17/175). The same argument can be made for as-Samʿânîʼs work.11
8To recapitulate, the fourth form of the root mîm – lâm – wâu (amlâ, yumlî) denotes the process of dictation which is commonly – but not exclusively – applied to transmitting ḥadîth from teacher to student; therefore the substantive imlâʾ can be translated as “dictation”. To denominate the person who dictates the aḥâdîth, as-Samʿânî and Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ use the active participle of the verb mentioned: mumlî, i.e. “someone who dictates, a dictatee”. A common synonym usually used, for example by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, is muḥaddith, i.e. the active participle of the second form from the root ḥâʾ - dâl – thâʾ. Thus muḥaddith literally meaning “someone who speaks” is the technical term for a transmitter of ḥadîth. Other sources use the expressions ṣâḥib al-ḥadîth or simply shaikh to refer to the person that dictates aḥâdîth to others.
9The active particle of the tenth form of the root mîm – lâm – wâu (istamlâ, yastamlî), i.e. mustamlî, is also utilized by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ and as-Samʿânî. Weisweiler discusses the various meanings of this specific form by quoting examples of usage from various Arabic sources. According to his analysis istamlâ, yastamlî means “to ask for dictation, to obtain through dictation, and to write down through dictation”. In addition, it could also mean “to work as a professional mustamlî”. Which of these two meanings is intended in a particular reference is not always easy to detect (Weisweiler, 1951: 27-29).
- 12 See for example Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 257, l. 9/171.
- 13 Some of these additional functions in addition to the enumeration of 107 known mustamlîs with thei (...)
10Regarding the professional mustamlî Weisweiler argues that the mustamlî works more or less permanently for his teacher and mainly writes down the teacherʼs aḥâdîth (“mit der besonderen Funktion des mehr oder weniger dauernd für einen Scheich arbeitenden Diktatschreibers”; Weisweiler, 1951: 31). Accordingly Weisweiler renders the professional mustamlî with the expression “secretary of dictation (Diktatsekretär)” (Weisweiler, 1951: 34). However, the mustamlî had, according to Weisweiler, a secondary duty which was to communicate the teacherʼs words to remote persons during a ḥadîth-lecture. The mustamlî therefore took the position of the (earlier) muballigh (the one who communicates or conveys) (Weisweiler, 1951: 37). Weisweiler rendered this function by translating mustamlî as “mediator (Vermittler)”. It is this function that Dickinson also relates to when rendering mustamlî with “repetitor”.12 It is exactly this function that is usually used in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqaddima and in as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ. However, his position does not only ask the mustamlî to communicate the teacherʼs words to the students but includes also some more functions which will be described below.13 Those functions make a mustamlî more a teaching assistant than a simple broadcaster. I will therefore render the word mustamlî as “teaching assistant” in this article.
11Finally, there is the student of ḥadîth who is sometimes referred to as ṭâlib al-ḥadîth, but also called kâtib al-ḥadîth, i.e. “the one who writes down the ḥadîth [he had heard from the mumlî]”. Since the educational characteristics of the students, such as age, profession or duration of study, are very diverse the term ṭâlib has to be understood in a very broad meaning.
- 14 For a detailed examination of as-Samʿânî’s description of the adab al-muḥaddith see Melchert, 2004 (...)
12How does Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ describe the proper behavior of those engaged in the sciences of ḥadîth in his Muqaddima? Since my assumption is that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ used as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ as a source for his Muqaddima, I will compare both works in the following part of the paper.14 A first indication for this assuption is provided by the fact that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ structured his information in the same way as as-Samʿânî. He first speaks about the person that dictates (muḥaddith), then he refers to the teaching assistant (mustamlî) and finally to the student of ḥadîth.
13Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ starts the chapter on âdâb al-muḥaddith, i.e. on the rules of conduct of the teacher of ḥadîth, with the assertion that the science of ḥadîth is a “noble science (ʿilm sharîf)” (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 251, l. 4/167). Therefore, anyone who wants to engage in aural transmission of ḥadîth or wants to acquire any knowledge about the sciences of ḥadîth needs a sincere devotion (ikhlâṣ) and should clean his heart from worldly aims (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 251, l. 6 – 252, l. 2/167). As-Samʿânî calls the science of ḥadîth a “noble” science too. In fact, it is the “most noble science (ashraf al-ʿulûm)” after the qurʾânic science (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 3, l. 5). Instead of speaking of intention, as-Samʿânî puts the focus on the outer appearance of the dictatee, when he demands from him to show the most perfect exterior and the best clothing (akmâl haiʾa wa-afḍal zîna, as-Samʿânî, 1952: 26, l. 7).
14Next Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ discusses the age at which it is appropriate to occupy oneself with aural transmission of ḥadîth (at-taṣaddâ li-ismâʿ al-ḥadîth) as a ḥadîth-teacher. He gives the (classical) figure of forty years, but also mentions the ages of twenty, fifty or one hundred years as appropriate. In general, he assesses that if someone feels the urge to transmit ḥadîth he can do so at any age (fî aiy sinn kâna). However, anyone should stop transmitting at an age when he fears senility (haram) and is, therefore, confusing the various aḥâdîth or to transmit aḥâdîth which he is not permitted to transmit (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 252, l. 3 – 254, l. 1/167-169).
15Before he continues to describe how classes should be organized, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ alludes to the hierarchy among the various muḥaddithûn by demanding that a person shall not transmit ḥadîth if there is someone present whose knowledge is superior to his. The transmitter should rather inform the student of this person and lead the student to him (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 254, l. 2-8/169).
- 15 See as-Samʿânî, 1952: 27, l. 9-16.
16The role model for the proper behavior of a transmitter is, according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, Mâlik b. Anas (d. 179/795). Like him, a muḥaddith shall perform the ritual ablutions before transmitting, shall put on some scent, shall sit erect and shall not raise his voice. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ extracts this advice from two traditions which are transmitted about Mâlik (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 256, l. 3-14/169-70). Interestingly, the second tradition speaking of the raising of the voice is – although without isnâd –almost literally found in as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ.15
- 16 Pace Dickinson who rendered kharraja with “to bring forth”, it was indicated to me by the reviewer (...)
- 17 Arabic wording: wa-ahamm min dhâlika ʼd-duʿâʾ la-hû ʿinda dhikrihî.
17How shall a muḥaddith conduct his class? According to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, the muḥaddithshall receive listeners in his majlis independently of their social standing. Furthermore, he shall speak in an eloquent manner, but not so fast that the listener would be unable to grasp his words (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 257, l. 3/170). Later Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ takes up this point again by demanding that a muḥaddith shall avoid the issues that cannot be understood by the intellect of the listeners. He should also avoid those things that he fears to cause misunderstanding (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 259, l. 12-13/172). After convening a teaching session, the muḥaddith shall either transmit ḥadîth by dictation (imlâʾ) or by aural transmission (samâʾ). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ even presents a specific formula of praise a muḥaddith shall use for opening a class (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 257, l. 3-9/170-1). When the teacher transmits ḥadîth he shall start the dictation by citing traditions from his best source. The quality of the source is dependent on the most elevated isnâd or other features, for example a short matn (ʿalâ sanad wa-qaṣr matn). Moreover, the muḥaddith shall dictate from each of these sources only one ḥadith which he has to choose consciously, considering and describing its particular benefit to the listener (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 259, l. 9-12/172). In case he faces problems in quoting the (isnâd of a) ḥadîth (kharraja),16 he shall ask for help those present in class and let them provide the details (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 260, l. 1/172). Whenever the muḥaddith mentions one of his own teachers’ names he shall praise him in an appropriate way. More importantly, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ adds, the muḥaddith has to pray for him, when he speaks of him (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 258, l. 12-15/171-2).17
18Each time the muḥaddith mentions the prophet Muḥammad he shall bless him by using the formula “peace be upon him (ṣallâ ʼllâhu ʿalaihi wa-sallama, lit. God bless him and grant him salvation)”. Similarly, when he quotes a companion of the prophet (ṣaḥâbî) he shall use the formula “May God be pleased with him (raḍiya ʼllâhu ʿanhu)” (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 258, l. 10-11/171).
19The muḥaddith is allowed to refer to other transmitters by their honorific name (laqab), their maternal descent (nisba ilâ umm), like Muḥammad b. Maryam, or by reference to their bodily infirmity, if they were known under those names. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ gives the example of al-Aʿmash (the Bleary-eyed) whose ism was Sulaimân. However, if the person dislikes to be called by any of these, the transmitter should refrain from calling him like that (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 259, l. 1-8/172). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ finishes his explanation on the âdâb of the muḥaddith by asserting that it is appropriate (ḥasan) to conclude the class of dictation by quoting stories (ḥikâyât), humorous tales (nawâdir) or verses (inshâdât) together with their chains of transmitters – as it was the custom of earlier muḥaddithûn(Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 259, l. 13-15/172).
- 18 Instead of al-ʿawâmm Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ put al-ḥâḍirîn.
20As-Samʿânî establishes similar requirements: the mumlî shall specify to his students the day when the majlis takes place (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 38, l. 8-9). Furthermore he shall not transmit what cannot be grasped by the intellects of the listeners, antedating the literal expression (mâ lâ taḥtamiluhû ʿuqûl al-ʿawâmm)also used by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ(as-Samʿânî, 1952: 59, l. 21).18
21Regarding the eulogies that have to be spoken after the mentioning of Muḥammad or the companions, as-Samʿânî demands from the mumlî to use the formulas ṣallâ ʼllâhu ʿalaihi wa-sallama and raḍiya ʼllâhu ʿanhu respectively (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 63, l. 16-17 and 65, l. 2). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ not only uses the same phrase as as-Samʿânî (intahâ ilâ dhikr) but also has the same insertion that the eulogy of the prophet shall be spoken in a loud voice (rafaʿa ṣautahû;Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 258, l. 10/171; as-Samʿânî, 1952: 63, l. 17). Furthermore it was already as-Samʿânî who said that a majlis shall end (khatama) with stories (ḥikâyât) and humorous tales (nawâdir;as-Samʿânî, 1952: 68, l. 17). This is another example of an almost literal quotation from as-Samʿânîʼs text which is found in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqaddima.
22As part of the chapter on the âdâb al-muḥaddith, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ deals with the mustamlî, i.e. with the transmitter’s teaching assistant whose main task is to broadcast the transmitter’s words. The mustamlî functions as a technical assistant who according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ shall be employed when the crowd of listeners is large. In this case the mustamlî shall communicate (yuballighu) the transmitter’s speech without any divergence (min ghair khilâf), i.e. without altering the wording of the mentioned aḥâdîth. The advantage of employing a mustamlî is that someone who is sitting at a distance to the muḥaddith can still hear what the teacher says. Therefore, as Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ goes on to say, it is best if the mustamlî is standing on an elevated place (mauḍiʿ murtafiʿ), like a chair or something similar. If such a spot does not exist, the teaching assistant shall at least speak standing upright. Employing a mustamlî was a habit of the most reknown muḥaddithûn, among whom Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ particularly names Mâlik b. Anas.
23Regarding the mustamlîIbn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ makes three prerequisites: first the mustamlî shall be alert (mutayaqqiẓ) and second, he shall already have acquired some knowledge (of ḥadîth) (muḥaṣṣal). Having some knowledge about ḥadîth in general or the aḥadîth transmitted by the teacher in particular diminishes the probability that the mustamlî distorts the wording of the traditions he has to communicate. From this it can be assumed safely that the mustamlî could have been one of the muḥaddithʼ advanced students. Third, whoever just hears the words spoken by the mustamlî does not immediately get the permission of transmission from the muḥaddith (ijâza). The listener will only receive this permission if he characterizes the particular circumstances (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 257, l. 9 – 258, l. 4/171).
- 19 Chamberlain argues convincingly in favor of this “ceremonial” view that a majlis had ritual elemen (...)
- 20 I explicitly deviate from Dickinson’s translation here who renders “Whomever you mention or whatev (...)
24The mustamlî does not only broadcast the teacher’s words, but also has according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ a “ceremonial” function within the majlis. It is especially this “ceremonial” function that elevates him from a mere repetitor to a teaching assistant.19 It could be he (or someone else) who opens the class by reciting some verses from the Qurʾân. After the recitation the mustamlî shall start to speak by asking the listeners (ahl al-majlis) for silence. Then he shall praise God by using the formula “Praise be to God (al-ḥamdu li-llâh)” and bless the prophet Muḥammad in a very eloquent manner. Next the mustamlî shall turn towards the muḥaddith and bless him. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ gives two possible formulas which the mustamlî shall use to address the muḥaddith: either “To whom did you mention [it] or what did you mention, may God have mercy upon you (man dhakarta au mâ dhakarta raḥimaka ʼllâh)”20 or “May God forgive you (ghafara ʼllâh la-ka)”. However, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ also allows similar formulas to be used (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 258, l. 6-9/171). After these introductory remarks by the mustamlî the teacher takes over the floor and starts transmitting the aḥâdîth according to the rules mentioned above and the mustamlî simply repeats his words.
- 21 The exception regards the fact that by listening to the mustamlî an ijâza is not immediately grant (...)
- 22 Further below as-Samʿânî points out that the mustamlî shall have worked already with aḥâdîth. Othe (...)
25It is the part on the mustamlî which shows best that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥtook as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ as a direct source and abridged it heavily. It is as-Samʿânîʼs usual approach to state a normative sentence using the formulas “It is appropriate for person X/person X should do or be (yanbaghî li-)” or “it is desirable for (yastaḥabbu li-)” and then to cite one or more aḥâdîth which exemplify this assignment. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ included some of these normative sentences (including the structure “it is appropriate”/“it is desirable”) in almost the same wording in his Muqaddima. Consequently, all but one report regarding the mustamlî from Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqaddima can be found in as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ.21 For example the mumlî shall employ someone who communicates (yuballighu) his dictation to those sitting at a distance (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 84, l. 17) without altering the words (an lâ yukhâlifa lafẓ al-mumlî; as-Samʿânî, 1952: 105, l. 14). As does Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, as-Samʿânî recommends that the mustamlî shall stand on an elevated place (mauḍiʿ murtafiʿ) or in case of absence of such a place repeat the words standing upright (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 88, l. 2-3). Again, the mustamlî shall be alert (mutayaqqiẓ) and shall have acquired some knowledge in ḥadîth (muḥaṣṣal; as-Samʿânî, 1952: 90, l. 4-5),22 and as-Samʿânî also ascribes a “ceremonial” function to him. It is the mustamlî who opens the class by reciting the Qurʾân (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 48, l. 7 and 98, l. 4), who asks the attendees for silence (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 49, l. 1 and 97, l. 7-8), and who starts the lecture with specific formulas.
- 23 There are some more pieces of information as-Samʿânî gives that are lacking in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqa (...)
26As-Samʿânî gives these formulas in greater detail than Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ stressing thereby the mustamlîʼs “ceremonial” function. The mustamlî shall open the session with the tasmiya, i.e. with the formula “In the name of God, the Merciful, the Compassionate (bi-smi ʼllâhi ʼr-raḥmâni ʼr-raḥîm)” (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 51, l. 15), and with the ḥamdala, i.e. with the words “Praise be to God, the Lord of the worlds (al-ḥamdu li-llâh rabb al-ʿâlamîn)” (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 52, l. 1-2 and 98, l. 4-5). He then shall bless the prophet, his family and companions (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 52, l. 10-11 and 98, l. 5) and invoke further blessings upon the teacher by using the words “May God be pleased with him (raḍiya ʼllâhu ʿanhu)”, upon the teacher’s parents and all the Muslims (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 54, l. 5 and 98, l. 6-7). After that the mustamlî shall introduce to the audience the teacher’s (shaikh) full name, including his paidonymic (kunya) and his name of kinship (nisba). If he does not know the (full) name the mustamlî shall ask the teacher for it (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 102, l. 10-11). When the mustamlî has finished this introduction he shall address the mumlî with the words “Which person told you, may God have mercy upon you, or to whom did you mentioned it, may God be pleased with you (man ḥaddathaka raḥimaka ʼllâh au man dhakarta raḍiya ʼllâh ʿanhu)” (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 53, l. 17 and 103, l. 15-17). At this point the teacher takes over the instruction with the words “It informed us Abû X, Y son Z (akhbaranâ abû fulân fulân b. fulân)” starting the transmission of the ḥadîth he wants to tell (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 53, l. 17-18 and 105, l. 7-8) while the mustamlî repeats his speech. The mustamlîʼs “ceremonial” function is furthermore fostered by his acts at the end of the majlis. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ does not mention these actions in his Muqaddima. According to as-Samʿânî it is also the mustamlî who closes the session. When the dictation is finished he shall bless the audience and all of those who wrote down the aḥâdîth starting with himself (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 107, l. 1-2 and l. 16).23
27Especially through as-Samʿânîʼs portrayal, it has become clear that classes of ḥadîth were partly formalized and followed a well-defined sequence. This sequence including in particular the proper behavior of the mustamlî still had a normative character for Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ. By quoting as-Samʿânî, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ still regards the first’s assignments as normative and continues to apply them to the teaching of ḥadîth in his own time.
- 24 Chamberlain argues convincingly that the following prescriptions are “means of making young people (...)
28With the statement that he has mentioned the major rules of conduct a muḥaddith has to observe (ʿuyûn min âdâb al-muḥaddith) and that further issues will be either less important or obvious, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ closes chapter 27 and turns to chapter 28 on the âdâb ṭâlib al-ḥadîth entitled “Knowledge of the Proper Behavior of the Student of ḥadîth”. In this chapter Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ not only provides moral guidelines to the students, but also speaks about the recommended curriculum and gives pedagogical advice.24
29Analogically to his comments on the muḥaddith, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ starts his moral guidelines for the student with the remark that he needs to achieve sincere devotion (taḥqîq al-ikhlâṣ) and that he shall not reach worldly aims (al-aghrâḍ ad-dunyawîya; Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 262, l. 4-5/175). Furthermore, the student shall ask God for support and shall have pure morals (akhlâq zakîya) and pleasant manners (âdâb murḍîya; Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 262, l. 13-14/175). Greed shall not cause the student to be careless in audition of ḥadîth (samâʿ) and taking over aḥâdîth (taḥammul) (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 263, l. 6/176). If he has succeeded in listening to a particular muḥaddith the student shall not conceal the aḥâdîth from others. This is according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ a form of wickedness (luʾm) into which only stupid and common students fall (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 264, l. 4-5/176). Moreover, the ṭâlib shall not study with too many teachers merely to acquire the reputation of having done so (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 265, l. 10-11/177). In addition, he shall not be prevented from collecting many aḥâdîth by pride and haughtiness (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 265, l. 5/176) and he shall not haughtily reject to transmit ḥadîth from someone inferior to him (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 265, l. 7-8/177).
- 25 For this translation I am indebted to Dickinson.
30Regarding the ṭâlibʼs teacher, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ gives the following moral instruction. The student shall glorify (yuʿaẓẓimu) his teacher, not bother (la yuthaqqilu) him for too long so that he does not get annoyed. Doing this could withdraw one’s benefit (yaḥrimu ʼl-intifâʿ; Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 263, l. 14 – 264, l. 2/176). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ concludes this section by quoting an inspiring ḥadîth from az-Zuhrî saying: “When the class goes on too long, the Devil takes part in it (idhâ ṭâla ʼl-majlis kâna li-sh-shaiṭân fîhi naṣîb)”25 (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 264, l. 2-3/176).
31Just as in his chapter on the muḥaddith, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ mentions in the very beginning the proper age to start hearing and writing down ḥadîth. However, he does not give a definite number but refers to his earlier remarks in chapter 24 of his Muqaddima. There he discusses several cases and cites various aḥâdîth regarding the correct age (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 177, l. 3–180, l. 3/95-97). However, he refuses to give a definite age, but urges to consider the case of each child individually. If the child understands the questions posed to him and can reply to them, he approves listening to ḥadîth even at an age younger than five. If the child (or anyone else) cannot understand the issue, he should not engage in aural transmission, may he be five or fifty (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 179, l. 9-12/96-97).
32Concerning the studentʼs curriculum Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ formulates precise requirements. The ṭâlib shall start with the two Ṣaḥîḥân by al-Bukhârî and Muslim and shall then continue with the Sunan by Abû Dâwûd, the Sunan by an-Nasâʾî and the book (sic!), i.e. the Al-jâmiʿ aṣ-ṣaḥîḥ, by at-Tirmidhî. After consulting the Kitâb as-sunan al-kabîr (The Extensive Book of the Sunnas) by al-Baihaqî the student shall proceed to the rest of the important ḥadîth-works be they musnad-works or muṣannaf-works. As the most important in each of these two categories Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ mentions the Musnad (the book containing traditions which are traceable to their first authorities) by Aḥmad b. Ḥanbal and the Muwaṭṭaʾ (The Well-trodden Path) by Mâlik b. Anas.
33Furthermore, the student shall devote himself to the ʿilal-works, like Aḥmad b. Ḥanbalʼs Kitâb al-ʿilal (The Book of Defects in ḥadîth) or ad-Dâraquṭnîʼs book with the same title. Then he shall study the books including information on the transmitters (kutub maʿrifat ar-rijâl wa-tawârîkh al-muḥaddithîn), for example al-Bukhârîʼs Al-taʾrîkh al-kabîr (The Extensive History) or Ibn Abî Ḥâtimʼs Kitâb al-jarḥ wa-ʼt-taʿdîl (The Book of Declaring Unreliable and Setting Right). Finally, the student shall direct his attention to the books on correcting problematic names, like Ibn Mâkûlâʼs Al-ikmâl (The Perfection) (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 267, l. 4-12/179-179).
- 26 For the various compositions of the “al-kutub as-sitta” by specific authors see Brown, 2007: 8-9 a (...)
34A short analysis of this list of assignments shows that all major branches within the ʿulûm al-ḥadîth are tackled. In addition, the list proves that by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs time a canon on the most important ḥadîth-works (by al-Bukhârî, Muslim, Abû Dâwûd, an-Nasâʾî and at-Tirmidhî) was already established leading to the later canon of the al-kutub as-sitta.26 Furthermore, each of these branches had one or two major representatives that were widely recognized as eminent works of the field. This curriculum proves that by the time of Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, the science of ḥadîth included an entirely developed set of sub-sciences.
- 27 I follow here Dickinsonʼs interpretation of the Arabic text.
35Among the pedagogical advice Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ gives to students of ḥadîth is first of all the admonition to work hard (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 262, l. 17-18/175). Furthermore, the student shall not only attend lectures in order to hear ḥadîth and write it down, but shall gain knowledge from it27 and understand it. Otherwise he would become a pretender and one of the imperfect imitators (ṣâra min al-mutashabbihîn al-manqûṣîn; Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 266, l. 17-20/178). To reach this aim, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ explains, it is helpful for the student to put the aḥâdîth pertaining to prayer, to the glorification of God (tasbîḥ) and to other religious acts (al-aʿmâl aṣ-ṣâliḥa) into practice (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 263, l. 7-8/176). That is, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ asks the student not only to transmit information about religious duties theoretically but also to live according to them.
- 28 I take the word ittifâq in the sentence wa-la-yakun al-ittifâq min shaʾnihî (Let consistency be hi (...)
- 29 For this specific definition of mudhâkara which literally means “consultation, learning, memorizin (...)
36Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ also provides special mnemonic-techniques for the student which help memorizing the aḥâdîth. First, the student shall learn ḥadîth by heart gradually little by little (ʿalâ ʼt-tadrîj qalîlan qalîlan) during several days and nights. Second, the student shall be thorough or exact (itqân) in all of his work.28 Third, an informal exchange of ḥadîth among students (mudhâkara)29 is according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ one of the best ways to reach the aim. Fourth, the student shall undertake research on his own whenever he comes across a problematic name for example in the asânîd or a difficult word in the matn. Researching its meaning and memorizing it will increase his knowledge greatly (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 267, l. 13–268, l. 4/179). Although Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ puts it quite generally, the following fifth pedagogical advice also holds true as a mnemonic-technique: “One of the first benefits in studying ḥadîth is informing someone about [it], i.e. teaching [it] (wa-min auwal fâʾida ṭalab al-ḥadîth al-ifâda)” (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 264, l. 5-6/179).
37The study of ḥadîth shall begin according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ with the best teacher of the student’s own city who teaches the aḥâdîth with the most elevated isnâd. Again as in the chapter on the âdâbal-muḥaddith where he said a teacher shall start citing the ḥadîth with the best isnâd, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ places the highest priority on the isnâd. Apart from the quality of the isnâd a good teacher is assessed by his broad knowledge of ḥadîth (ʿilm), his fame (shuhra), his high rank (sharaf) and other criteria (ghair dhâlika). Then the student shall study with other teachers from within his hometown before he starts travelling in order to hear other famous teachers (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 262, l. 18-20/175).
38When hearing and writing down books in lectures, the student of ḥadîth shall work with complete books and shall not just select parts of it. However if there are restraints for him in doing so, for example if he cannot stay any longer in the city due to financial problems, the student is allowed to do excerpts provided that he is qualified for this. If he is not qualified he should consult experts who do the excerpts for him. When former ḥadîth scholars did excerpts from their teachers’ books they used to mark the aḥâdîth which they chose for their excerpts by drawing a sign, like the letter ṭâʾ, above them. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ does not see a problem in doing so and recommends this approach as well (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 266, l. 1-17/177-8).
39In compiling excerpts or composing whole books the student of ḥadîth shall according to Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ do this only when he is qualified for it (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 268, l. 7/179). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ then gives some principles of arranging (taṣnîf) a book as further advice for the student. Among them are the main principles of firstly “arranging according to legal topics (taṣnîf ʿalâ ʼl-abwâb)” – forming so-called muṣannaf-works – and secondly “arranging according to the musnad, i.e. the collection of the ḥadîth of each companion individually (taṣnîf ʿalâ ʼl-masânîd wa-jamʿḥadîth kull ṣaḥâbî waḥdahû)” – forming the so-called musnad-works (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 268, l. 15-18/179-80). The other principles of arrangement that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ mentions are too detailed to be included here.
40Whichever principle of arrangement a student of ḥadîth chooses when composing a book, he shall refrain from just collecting large numbers of ḥadîth but shall state the purpose according to which he arranges his material (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 269, l. 21/181). Finally he shall not only collate the material he wrote down and correct possible mistakes occurring through ink blots (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 260, l. 2-3/173), but the student of ḥadîth shall before bringing his composition into the public (yukharriju ilâ ʼn-nâs mâ yuṣannifuhû) polish it, refine and review it (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 269, l. 24-25/182). With these remarks Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ closes the chapter on the âdâb ṭâlib al-ḥadîth and continues with his explanations on elevated and low asânîd.
41As mentioned above as-Samʿânî also describes the rules of conduct which are appropriate for the student of ḥadîth. Although as-Samʿânî entitled this particular chapter as faṣl fî âdâb al-kâtib (The Chapter on the Proper Behavior of the Writer of ḥadîth) his first piece of advice already makes clear that he uses kâtib and ṭâlib al-ḥadîth, i.e. student of ḥadîth, synonymously (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 108, l. 14).
42This chapter includes several requirements regarding the student’s outward appearance and his behavior during the majlis (where to sit, the style of sitting, not to sleep, how to address the mumlî and which ink to use). It therefore resembles Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs chapter on the âdâb ṭâlib al-ḥadîth only very slightly.
43Among the similar moral guidelines that as-Samʿânî gives to the student is the requirement of utmost glorification (taʿẓîm) and veneration (tabjîl) of the teacher (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 134, l. 3). Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ also relates this requirement using the second form of the root ʿain - ẓâʾ - mîm. This glorification and veneration shall be expressed according to as-Samʿânî by using honorific addresses like aiyuhâ ʼl-ustâdh (Dear Teacher, lit. Oh Teacher), aiyuhâ ʼl-ʿâlim (Dear Scholar, lit. Oh Scholar) or aiyuhâ ʼl-ḥâfiẓ (Dear Memorizer, lit. Oh Memorizer) (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 136, l. 3-4).
44The statement ascribed to az-Zuhrî according to which the devil will take part in the class when it takes too long, was placed by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ in the section of moral guidelines for the student. The same ḥadîth is found literally in as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ and therefore constitutes a further proof for the dependence of both works (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 68, l. 10). As-Samʿânî however does not mention it in the context of the student of ḥadîth but in his chapter about the mumlî explaining that the session of dictation should not be too long. Otherwise the listeners get bored and lose their interest in it. Why Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ arranged this particular ḥadîth differently is difficult to discern.
45As-Samʿânî does not give any further moral guidelines. Also, as-Samʿânî does not recommend a particular curriculum as Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ did. Even the pedagogical advice as-Samʿânî gives is very limited compared with Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ’s. As-Samʿânî demands the student to question the mustamlî in case he could not understand “a letter” or an expression properly (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 106, l. 7-8). This advice was not taken up by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ. Another issue neglected by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, although he mentioned specific marks to be applied to the text, was as-Samʿânîʼs directive to separate every two aḥâdîth by a circle (dâ’ira) between them (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 173, l. 1-2). The authors agree in demanding the collation of the material that the student has written down (as-Samʿânî, 1952: 77, l. 3-4).
- 30 For further examples see Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 169, l. 10-11/90; 231, l. 6/144; 275, l. 15-16/186. (...)
46To sum up, it has become clear that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ knew as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ when he wrote his Muqaddima. It is not only the information given by Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ on the âdâb al-muḥaddith and the devil-ḥadîth from az-Zuhrî but in particular his specific remarks on the mustamlî that prove Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs dependence on as-Samʿânîʼs work. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ may even had an ijâza for as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ. This is likely since several times in his Muqaddima, once even in the two chapters under discussion here, he states that he had met as-Samʿânîʼs son, Abû ʼl-Muẓaffar, personally in Marw and that Abû ʼl-Muẓaffar transmitted to him (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 266, l. 21/178).30 Moreover, from one example it can even be concluded that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ had a written text, most probably as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾ, at hand. There he says “qaraʾtu ʿalâ shaikhinâ ʾal-madhkûr Abî ʼl-Muẓaffar (I read in the presence of our teacher, the already mentioned Abû ʼl-Muẓaffar)” (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006: 275, l. 15-16/186). Because he regarded as-Samʿânî as an authority in the sciences of ḥadîth, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ bases his remarks on the adab al-muḥaddith widely, but not exclusively, on as-Samʿânîʼs text.
47Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs citation of the Adab al-imlâʾ furthermore shows that he held at least some of the requirements as-Samʿânî had put forward almost a century earlier in high esteem. What is more, Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ demands that they should still be applied in his own and his students’ generation. It need not be stressed however that all these requirements formulated within the genre of adab al-muḥaddith have a normative character, i.e. they describe an ideal situation. In a historic session of ḥadîth most likely not all of these requirements were observed. At different geographic localities and in different times some of these demands were followed, whereas others were rejected. However, it is very difficult to depict what a majlis in a certain city actually was like, because our sources do not cover such issues in particular detail.
- 31 Edited by as-Saiyid Muʿaẓẓam Ḥusain Kairo 1937.
48Apart from as-Samʿânîʼs Adab al-imlâʾIbn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ may have also utilized other examples of the adab al-muḥaddith literature. It is reasonable to assume that he knew firstly ar-Râmahurmuzîʼs (d. 360/971) Al-muḥaddith al-fâṣil baina ʼr-râwî wa-ʼl-wâʿî (The Transmitter of ḥadîth divided between the one who transmits and the one who remembers), edited by Muḥammad ʿAjjâj al-Khaṭîb (Beirut 1984, first edition Beirut 1971), secondly al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrîʼs (d. 405/1014) work bearing the title Kitâb maʿrifat ʿulûm al-ḥadîth (The Book on the Knowledge about the Ḥadîth Sciences)31and thirdly al-Khaṭîb al-Baghdâdîʼs (d. 463/1071) book entitledAl-jâmiʿ li-akhlâq ar-râwî wa-âdâb as-sâmiʿ (The Collection of Traditions Regarding the Correct Moral Conduct of the Transmitter and the Proper Behavior of the Listener).
49Since it was argued, that in particular al-Ḥâkimʼs Maʿrifa exercised a strong influence on later ḥadîth scholars (Dickinson, 2000: 933; Brown, 2007: 157), I will look into this issue in more detail and comment in the remaining article on this work only.
50When looking at both works, it becomes clear that Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ modeled his Muqaddima after al-Ḥâkim’s Maʿrifa. Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ did not only give his book a similar title, but copied al-Ḥâkim’s arrangement of the book by dividing the Muqaddima into several subsections called nauʿ/pl. anwâʿ (types, categories) (Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ, 2006b: XXIV). Furthermore, al-Ḥâkimʼs Maʿrifa includes technical terms of ḥadîth criticism, evaluations of several aḥâdîth on the basis of specific criteria, which al-Ḥâkim had introduced into the discussion, and presents various groups of ḥadîth-transmitters (e.g. all transmitters from Syria, Iraq etc. or all mawâlî who transmitted ḥadîth and so forth). Most of these issues are also found in Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ’s Muqaddima.
- 32 For further examples see al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 21, l. 7; 48, l. 16-17; 166, l. 13.
51However, al-Ḥâkim’s book does not include a complete chapter either on the proper behavior of the muḥaddith or of the student. Occasionally al-Ḥâkim differentiates between the muḥaddith, i.e. the one who is giving ḥadîth-lectures, and the ṭâlib al-ḥadîth, i.e. the student of ḥadîth who studies the sciences of ḥadîth (al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 15, l. 16, 18). Several times he makes statements relating to their proper behavior: for example, the muḥaddith is demanded to be righteous (ṣâdiq) and trustworthy (thâbit) (al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 14, l. 9). The student of ḥadîth is repeatedly addressed with the phrase mimmâ yaḥtâju/yalzamu ṭâlib al-ḥadîth (what is imperative for the student of ḥadîth), which is followed by a piece of advice given by al-Ḥâkim. For example, he asks the student to know the origin of a particular ḥadîth (al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 13, l. 17), to question the muḥaddith’ religious status (al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 15, l. 18-19) or to know the different types of halted ḥadîth (al-mauqûfât, al-Ḥâkim, 1937: 20, l. 13).32 These are early examples of requirements and advice for students of ḥadîth. Although al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrî did not devote a whole chapter to these issues, he indeed appears to have put an emphasis on the proper behavior when transmitting ḥadîth.
52Al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrî not only put an emphasis on issues of adab al-muḥaddith but was also the main protagonist in the process of canonization of ḥadîth which is still only poorly understood. Jonathan Brown in his excellent study argues that it was mainly due to al-Ḥâkimʼs initiative that al-Bukhârî’s (d. 256/870) and Muslim b. al-Ḥajjâj’s (d. 261/875) Ṣaḥîḥân gained the status as “a new measure of authenticity for evaluating reports attributed to the Prophet” (Brown, 2007: 6). It was al-Ḥâkimʼs Ḥanbalîte and Shâfiʿîte pupils like al-Wâʾilî (d. 444/1052) and al-Juwainî (d. 478/1085), Imâm al-Ḥaramain, who declared in the fifth/eleventh century an allegedly broad consensus on the Ṣaḥîḥânʼs reliability. By so doing, these two together with other scholars established the Ṣaḥîḥân as canonical compilations regarding questions of the Prophetic past (Brown, 2007: 6).
- 33 For a detailed analysis of the adab al-qâḍî literature as a literary genre see Schneider, 1990. Th (...)
- 34 For the best translation of the term in the context of the adab al-qâḍî literature see Schneider, (...)
53This means also that al-Ḥâkim not only held major responsibility for the process of canonization of ḥadîth-literature, but indeed paved the way for the establishment of the adab al-muḥaddith genre. This genre may have had its precursors in previous examples of adab literature within the religious disciplines of scholarship. These precursors could have been the adab al-muftî or the adab al-qâḍî literature,33 which describe the rules of conduct (Verhaltensregeln)34 of the muftî and the qâḍî. Whereas the first was usually part of the uṣûl al-fiqh works (Krawietz, 1995: 163), the latter was often found in furûʿ works or formed independent works (Krawietz, 1995: 163, n. 8). Schneider dates the beginning of the adab al-qâḍî literature to the 2nd/8th century (Schneider, 1990: 4), whereas Krawietz unfortunately does not touch upon this issue (Krawietz, 1995: 165). Therefore, simultaneously with the development of the science of law (fiqh) in Islam, or shortly after, a set of regulations was shaped, which commanded the practitioners of law (the qâḍîs and muftîs) to behave and practise in a special manner.
54Taking these genres of adab literature as a model, it could be argued that a similar process took place in the science of ḥadîth. Together with the canonization of ḥadîth literature Muslim scholars, in particular al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrî, created rules according to which a muḥaddith had to teach and a student of ḥadîth had to work while transmitting. Writing down these rules led to the emergence of the adab al-muḥaddith literature as an entire new genre of scholarly writing.
- 35 It is probable that al-Khaṭîb al-Baghdâdîʼs book Al-jâmiʿis also based on al-Ḥâkimʼs precursor. Ho (...)
55Regarding the influence of other works from the disciplines of ʿulûm al-ḥadîth, in particular al-Khaṭîb al-Baghdâdîʼs Al-jâmiʿ, on Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqaddima a lot more research has to be undertaken. It remains a desideratum to show if Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥ drew upon these works at all and in case he did to what extent. Such a detailed philological analysis, however, lies beyond the scope of this article. This article tried to show that the Adab al-imlâʾ by as-Samʿânî and Ibn aṣ-Ṣalâḥʼs Muqaddima, who cited as-Samʿânîʼs work, can be seen as derivations of the early adab al-muḥaddith genre, which may have been rudimentally established by al-Ḥâkim an-Naysâbûrî.35